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Piperine Extract Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions 2022

The benefits of piperine

Piperine Extract Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions 2022

Piperine is responsible for the black pepper distinct biting quality. Piperine has many pharmacological effects and several health benefits, especially against chronic diseases, such as reduction of insulin-resistance, anti-inflammatory effects, and improvement of hepatic steatosis.

Piperine peppermint (also called Black Pepper Extract) comes from peppercorns from Piper nigrum plants.

Peppercorns contain numerous plant chemicals that have effects on the human body. Piperine is the main bioactive compound in black pepper, responsible for most physiological effects.

This supplement is used to support weight loss, as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, to stimulate digestion, and for joint health.

Piperine is commonly used in dietary supplements to increase the absorption of other active ingredients from the gastrointestinal tract. It inhibits enzymes that break down nutrients and stimulates transporters that line the intestines.

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Piperine Extract Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions 2022

This ingredient is commonly combined with curcumin (turmeric) to increase the bioavailability of this compound. Piperine has been shown to increase the bioavailability of curcumin by 2,000.

This article will discuss how piperine extract works in the body, its most common uses, health benefits, effects on turmeric absorption, supplement information, safety and side effects, and possible interactions with medications and other supplements.

Description of the black pepper plant

The black pepper plant is called Piper nigrum in botany. According to Kew Science, this plant is a climbing plant in the Piperaceae family that can grow up to 10 feet or more in length. 

Pepper plants establish adventitious roots from their main stem to attach to and support. Many separate shoots grow on the main stem to form a thick column.

These plants have flowering stems known as “spikes.” Each spike produces 50-150 small white-yellow-green flowers. The fruit of pepper plants is small, round, and berry-like, and they grow in clusters. About 50-60 develop fruit at each point.

Piper nigrum fruits, called peppercorns, grow about 6 mm in diameter. They are green when immature, turn progressively red while ripening and. 

Piperine Extract Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions 2022

Green pepper is harvested when immature. Black peppercorns are harvested when almost ripe and dried in the sun to activate the protective black outer layer. 

White peppercorns are ripe pepper with their outer shells removed—only the remnants of inner white seed. 

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Piper nigrum is indigenous to India and other tropical countries in Asia. Its peppercorns are used as one of the most popular culinary spices in the world. 

Black peppercorns have also been used in Siddha, Unani, and traditional Ayurvedic medicines for thousands of years. It is most commonly used to aid digestion and digestive problems like constipation, diarrhoea, and indigestion. 

It has also been used traditionally for coughs, colds, breathing problems, sore throats, and toothaches. It is also sometimes used externally for skin conditions. 

How Piperine Extract Works In The Body

Piperine is the main bioactive chemical in black peppercorns. It is a naturally occurring alkaloid compound that gives pepper its spicy, savoury flavour.

Piperine is commonly extracted from peppercorns using solvent extraction techniques.

This extract has shown a wide range of effects in vitro (cell culture) and animal studies, including antidiabetic, antiobesity, anticancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and other properties.

Clinical research in humans is limited. This supplement is used primarily to enhance the absorption of other compounds, including various medications and supplements.

Piperine extract works by totally inhibiting or suppressing the breakdown of certain medications and supplements, or by increasing their absorption, or a combination of both. 

Piperine stops the liver from binding glucuronide molecules to certain drugs to mark urinary or faecal excretion. This process is called glucuronidation

Glucuronidation of the drug is a protective mechanism to prevent toxic substances from accumulating in the body. However, sometimes glucuronidation stops beneficial compounds from being assimilated and utilized.

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Using piperine extract helps decrease the excretion of some supplements and drugs. This can help those substances that remain in the body longer, travel through the circulatory system, and cause effects in the body. 

Piperine Extract Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions 2022

Piperine extract increases the absorption and bioavailability of many substances. For example, in a clinical research study, it was considered to increase coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) absorption by 30% [ 

In another study in humans, administration of this supplement with curcumin increases its bioavailability by up to 2,000 over the bioavailability of curcumin administered alone. 

This extract is believed to accelerate some metabolic processes and thus increase the transport of nutrients in the bloodstream and absorption. 

It can also work by stimulating amino acid transporters found in the intestinal lining. These transporters are responsible for the nutrients consumed in food and their transport through the gastrointestinal tract wall into the circulatory system.

There is some evidence that this supplement can favourably stimulate the activity of digestive enzymes in the pancreas, which can aid digestion and reduce the gastrointestinal transit time of food.

Effects and mechanisms

In addition to its ability to increase the bioavailability of other active substances, Piperine exhibits several mechanisms of action independent of administering other compounds.

Black pepper extract has thermogenic effects, which means that it could increase heat generation within the body. This can be beneficial in stimulating metabolism and can support weight loss. 

Several studies have examined the effects of this extract in relieving pain, reducing swelling and redness, improving cognition, and treating arthritis symptoms. 

The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (NMCD) reports that Piperine has shown several effects in vitro and animal studies. These include pain reliever, anti-amoebic, anti-asthma, antibacterial, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. 

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Piperine Extract Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions 2022

Piperine extract has also shown antiparasitic, antiseizure, fertility, cardioprotective, chemotherapy protective, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective effects in animal and cell studies. 

According to a research report, “Black pepper or piperine treatment has also been shown to reduce lipid peroxidation in vivo and beneficially influence cellular thiol state, antioxidant molecules and antioxidant enzymes in some experimental oxidative stress situations. “

Clinical research in humans is limited, and most of these effects have not yet been studied in people.

Recent human studies have shown anti-asthma, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-diabetes, and anti-inflammatory effects. 

Piperine and curcumin extract

Turmeric supplements commonly contain a brand name form of Piperine called Bioperine. This combination is synergistic because Piperine improves the bioavailability of curcumin, the main active component in turmeric.

While curcumin is associated with numerous health benefits, it has very poor bioavailability if taken on its own.

Bioavailability refers to the amount of a substance that enters the bloodstream after being introduced into the body. This is the amount that is capable of inducing pharmacological effects.

Piperine extract is considered a “bioenhancer,” which means that it increases the bioavailability of some other substances.

In one study, patients were given a dose of 2 g of curcumin alone or 2 g of turmeric along with 20 mg of Piperine. The serum (blood) levels of curcumin in the group alone were very low or even undetectable in the different participants.

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Piperine Extract Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions 2022

In the turmeric and piperine group together, much higher serum concentrations were seen, and the 2000% increase in bioavailability was determined.

The researchers concluded at the doses used, Piperine significantly increased serum concentration, bioavailability, and the degree of absorption of curcumin with no negative effects observed. 

In addition to increasing bioavailability, Piperine also decreases curcumin metabolism by inhibiting the glucuronidation process and affecting intestinal transit time. This allows curcumin to remain in the body longer, absorbed more of it. 

Curcumin’s bioavailability is also significantly increased when taken with a healthy fat source such as coconut oil, avocado, or caught salmon.

The supplement forms of turmeric sometimes contain Bioperine and curcumin in a fatty acid solution to increase absorption from the intestine.

Uses for Piperine Extract

The NMCD reports that people take piperine pepper extract supplements by mouth for a variety of uses, including:

  • Arthritis
  • Bronchitis, asthma, and other respiratory disorders
  • Depression
  • Headache
  • Increase libido (rough sex)
  • Menstrual pain
  • Sinusitis (inflammation of the sinus) and rhinitis (runny nose)
  • Upset stomach, diarrhoea, flatulence, and other gastrointestinal problems 

The NMCD states that people also use this extract orally for vertigo (dizzy, whirling sensation), vitiligo (white patches of skin), weight loss, and cancer. 

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Some people use pepper extract topically for scabies (contagious skin disease), neuralgia (nerve pain), and measles (infectious viral disease). Like cayenne pepper, black pepper is also used on the skin as a counterirritant for pain. 

Black pepper essential oil is used by inhalation to prevent falls, improve swallowing, and help stop smoking tobacco products. 

Piperine extract health benefits

At this time, data from clinical studies on Piperine are limited. Several clinical studies have shown beneficial effects, and research is ongoing to learn how this plant extract affects human health.

The primary health care benefit of black pepper extract is that it improves the absorption of some substances in the intestines or blocks the breakdown and elimination of these compounds. 

As mentioned above, Piperine has been seen to increase the bioavailability and absorption of curcumin and CoQ10. In one study, patients were given 90 mg or 120 mg of CoQ10 and a placebo or Piperine for 14 or 21 days.

It has been observed that after 21 days, supplementation with 120 mg of CoQ10 and Piperine had a statistically significant increase (approximately 30%) in the plasma concentration of CoQ10 compared to the placebo group. 

As described above, one study found that administering Piperine and curcumin together resulted in a 2000% increase in the bioavailability of curcumin.

Piperine Extract Uses, Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions 2022

Piperine has also been shown to greatly increase the bioavailability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin A (retinol), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), beta-carotene, and selenium. 

Many people use this extract to enhance the effects of brain-stimulating supplements such as Noopept, various Racetams, and Modafinil. Research is needed to know if Piperine can increase the absorption of these and other nootropics.

Many health experts believe that piperine extract may also positively affect malnutrition or nutrient malabsorption, and research is ongoing in this area. 

Most therapeutic effects have only been observed in in vitro and animal research studies. It is not yet known whether these benefits translate to humans.

More clinical research is needed to determine if it has the same effects in humans as in vitro and animal studies and to determine the therapeutic efficacy of any medical condition.

Piperine is available as a dietary supplement, and the FDA has not approved it as a drug to prevent or treat any health conditions.

If you are interested in taking a piperine supplement, it is recommended that you speak with your doctor for more information before beginning use.

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Piperine extract for cancer

Peppercorns demonstrate anticancer effects in animal and cell studies. However, it is too early to determine whether this supplement can reduce cancer risk in humans.

In animal studies, Piperine inhibits the formation of tumour nodules and the reduction:

  • Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity
  • Hydroxyproline from lung collagen
  • Lung hexosamine
  • Sialic acid from serum
  • Tissue uronic acid

In in vitro studies, Piperine slowed down the proliferation of human cancer cells (rapid replication) and caused cell apoptosis (programmed cell death). 

The NMCD reports several possible mechanisms of action for the anticancer effects observed in vitro and animal studies. Some of these include:

  • Alter mitochondrial enzyme activity
  • Decreased DNA damage
  • Increased detoxification enzymes
  • Increased glutathione metabolizing enzymes
  • Lower the levels of carbohydrates attached to proteins
  • Reduction of lipid peroxidation

Due to these promising results, there is a high degree of scientific interest in studying Piperine’s effects on cancer in humans. Several clinical trials are preliminary to study this to determine therapeutic efficacy.

Piperine supplements

The NMCD states over 2,500 supplements on the market that contain black pepper or piperine extraction as ingredients alone or in combination with other compounds.

Supplements are available in many sources, most commonly tablets or capsules and sometimes bulk powder.

Piperine is available in single-ingredient formulations and combination products with other supplements, most commonly curcumin. Some combinations with CoQ10 are also available.

Piperine extract is typically available at 10 mg per dose as a single ingredient or combination supplement.

One of the most common versions of the brand is called BioPerine. Sabinsa Corporation produces it. Several supplement manufacturers have purchased the license rights and provided BioPerine as their source for the black pepper extract.

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Because there is a wide variety of products available, looking for high-quality supplements from reputable manufacturers is recommended.

Store your supplements according to the directions on the label for exposure to light, heat, and air.

Piperine extract dosage

Keep in mind that Piperine is a powerful supplement that can induce a wide range of effects.

Doses as low as 10 mg/day affect the metabolism and absorption of numerous supplements and medications.

Because of this, it is recommended this supplement should be used with caution, especially if you have been diagnosed with a medical condition or are currently taking prescription medications.

Many health experts recommend starting doses between 5-10 mg per day rather than increasing doses gradually as needed.

It is best to seek medical advice on the optimal dosage of black pepper or a piperine extract for you.

Piperine extract safety and side effects

The Natural Medicines Database rates pepper as Likely Safe when used orally in amounts found in food. The FDA has generally given white and black pepper safe (GRAS) status. 

Black pepper is rated as Possibly Safe when used orally appropriately in medicinal amounts.

Piperine is generally well tolerated when taken in adequate doses. It can cause some gastrointestinal side effects and potentially bleeding at high doses.

Drug and supplement interactions

Piperine is known to increase the absorption and bioavailability of other substances. This can be good, as in the case of curcumin and some with poor absorption.

However, it can also be dangerous in the case of some drugs as it can raise concentrations to unhealthy levels.

The NMCD states that piperine extract can inhibit cytochrome P450 CYP1A1, CYP2B1, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 substrate drugs. This can affect the metabolism and bioavailability of hundreds of drugs.

May also interact with amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox), anticoagulant / antiplatelet medications, antidiabetic medications, cyclosporine, lithium, nevirapine, p-glycoprotein substrates, pentobarbital (Nembutal), phenytoin (Dilantin), propranolol (Inderal, and theophylampin).

May interact with herbs and supplements that have anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects or potentially lowering blood sugar, such as sparteine ​​and Rhodiola Rosea.

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Starting to use a piperine extract supplementation could increase the side effects of medications and supplements that you already use. It is important to discuss this supplement with your doctor beforehand if you take any prescription medication.

Talk to your doctor first before you start using this product if you have any bleeding disorder. This supplement could affect the aggregation of platelets in the blood and increase the risks of bleeding and bruising.

Peppermint extracts could also affect blood sugar levels. Be very careful with this supplement if you have diabetes. Check your glucose levels frequently and watch for adverse effects developing.

Because of the possible effects on blood glucose levels and clotting activity, you should stop using pepper supplements at least two weeks before surgeries are scheduled.

What are the side effects of piperine?

Supplements containing 5–20 mg of piperine per dose also appear to be safe, but research in this area is limited ( 13 , 15). However, eating large amounts of black pepper or taking high-dose supplements may lead to adverse side effects, such as burning sensations in the throat or stomach ( 23 ).

What’s the difference between piperine and BioPerine?

This is a common question, Piperine and Bioperine are both names for the same thing ingredient, i.e. Black Pepper Extract. Bioperine is the active ingredient extracted from the piper nigrum plant. … BioPerine® is a patented extract obtained from black pepper fruits (Piper nigrum) standardized minimum to 95% Piperine.

How much piperine is in a teaspoon of black pepper?

In comparison, BioPerine® black pepper fruit extract is standardized to a minimum 95% piperine by mass. Hence, as little as 5 mg BioPerine® provides as much piperine as 250 mg of most black pepper spices. For reference, 1/4 teaspoon of ground black pepper weighs about 500 mg.

Does piperine increase absorption?

It augments the bioavailability of several drugs like carbamazepine, curcumin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, metronidazole, oxytetracycline and many others by inhibiting various metabolizing enzymes. Thus piperine, being an efficacious inhibitor of drug metabolism is a powerful enhancer of absorption.

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