Tomato Plant Diseases
The tomato is the edible, often red berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America and Central America.
The Nahuatl (the language used by the Aztecs) word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived.
Diseases and pest control are necessary to get the desired yield from a tomato plant. By the way, tomato crop is attacked by many diseases and pests.
But economically there are some major diseases and pests, which make the tomato plant more vulnerable.
Due to which there is a huge reduction in its production, the producers should timely prevent the harmful diseases and pests of these tomato crops.
This article mentions diseases and pests of the tomato plant and how to control them.
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Major diseases and control of tomato plant
Humid smelting- This is a serious disease of the tomato plant, which is caused by a mixed infection of fungal Rhizoctonia and the phytophthora fungi. This causes the lower stem of the affected plant to melt.
- Sow seeds by treating them with thiram or captan at the rate of 3 grams per kg of seed.
- Remove the diseased plants from the field and destroy them.
- Keep the drainage in the field perfect.
Late Blight (scorching) –
In tomato crop, this disease is caused by a fungus called Firophthora Infestans. Initially, aqueous irregular shaped spots are formed on the leaves. Which later turns into brown to black spots.
- Use healthy seedless plants.
- Remove the affected plants from the field and destroy them.
- Adoption of the crop cycle.
- Spray Metalexyl 4 percent + Mancajev 64 percent wp 25 grams per liter on the affected crop.
In tomato crop, this disease is caused by a fungus called Alternaria Solana. Small black spots appear on the leaves of affected plants. Which grow into round speckled spots. The spots on the fruit are dry and sunken.
- Burn and destroy diseased plants.
- Adoption of the crop cycle.
- Seed treatment with captan 75 wp 2 g per kg seed.
- Spraying of Mancozeb 75 wp at a rate of 2.5 kg per hectare at 10 days interval in case of symptoms of the disease.
In tomato crop, this disease is caused by a fungus called Fusarium Oxysporum Lycopersici. In this, the lower leaves of the diseased plant are yellow and scorched.
The plants wither away. Plant growth stops and fruits do not grow. Brown stripes can be seen along the convection filaments of the main stem.
- Sunset the soil in summer.
- Treat the seeds with Basilum Subtilis or Trichoderma Harzinum @ 10 grams per kilogram of seeds.
- In the said bioagent, mix 2.5 kg of manure with 50 kg of cow dung and mix it in pre-sowing land per hectare.
- Drench the field at the rate of Carbendazim 25 percent + Mancozeb 50 percent WS 0.1 percent 30 days after planting.
This disease occurs in tomato crops by leaf blight virus and is spread by whitefly.
The leaves of infected plants are small and appear yellow upwards. The plant stops growing, the number of flowers and fruits are reduced drastically.
- The infected plants should be removed from the field and destroyed.
- Keep the field free from weeds.
- To destroy the insect pest, spray the imidacloprid 17.8sl solution in 1 ml per 3 liters of water or Thiamithaxom 25 WP 0.4 g per liter of water.
Original gland disease
In tomato crop, the disease is caused by the nematode Meloidogyne genus. In this, lumps are formed in the roots of the plants.
Symptoms are seen on the upper part of the plant due to the high number of nematodes in the soil, such as yellowing, fading, and growth stagnation. The disease develops in circles.
- Use disease-resistant varieties.
- Deep plowing of land from May to June and cover the field with transparent polythene.
- Adoption of the crop cycle.
- Sow in bed as a trap crop.
- Bail of the marigold flower in 2: 1 in the field.
- Before planting the plant, immerse the plant in 500 ppm solution of Carbosulfon 25 EC.
- Carbsulfan 3G or Forage 10g 1.5 kg of active ingredients per hectare should be used with seedlings and after 30 to 40 days.
Major pest and control of tomato Plant
White Braided – This causes great harm to the tomato plant. It attacks the roots. Plants die from their infestation.
Control– Forage 10g or Carbofuran 3G at the rate of 15 kg per hectare before planting in the rows near the plant roots.
Katwa braided- This insect’s braid comes out of the ground at night and cuts small plants equal to the surface. In the daytime, it is hidden under mud slopes or in cracks.
Control– Qinalfas 1.5 percent of the powder mixed in the land at the rate of 20 to 25 kg per hectare.
Whitefly, thrips, green weed, and Moyla – these pests weaken by sucking the sap from the leaves and soft branches of the plants. Whitefly spreads viral diseases in tomatoes. Their infestation adversely affects the yield.
Control– Spraying of phosphoramide 85 SL 0.3 ml or dimethoate 30 ec or malathion 50 ec one ml per liter of water, if necessary, repeat the spraying after 15 to 20 days.
Fruit borer– In tomato crop, the insect’s braid pierces the fruit and eats from inside. Sometimes due to their infestation, the fruits rot and with the decrease in production, the quality of the fruits also decreases.
Control– Malathion 50 EC should be sprayed with one ml per liter of water.
In today’s era, almost 100 types of vegetables are being cultivated successfully from the plains to the hilly areas.
There are 60 such vegetables in these, about 940 lakh tonnes of vegetables are being cultivated commercially in about 64 lakh hectares.
Out of these, tomato crop can be taken throughout the year. The tomato plant is also a good source of employment for farmers.
Tomato crops are also attacked with pests along with many diseases, for which farmers have to be cautious and take care of them.
First, choose a place where there is enough sunlight. Actually, the tomato plant needs at least eight to 10 hours of sunlight a day.
Choose as big a flowerpot as possible. Tomato plant needs a lot of nutrients, so it becomes necessary that there is enough soil in the pot. You can buy garden soils from the local nursery.
As the plant grows, you will have to make arrangements to increase soil nutrients periodically.
You put the biodegradable kitchen vest in this pot. This will make you ready. Apart from this, putting earthworms or egg peels in pottery soil can also be a matter.
You remove the seeds from a tomato. If you are not sure about the quality of the seeds, you can buy tomato seeds from the local nursery. After that take some paper cups and fill them with one inch of pottery soil. Then add tomato seeds.
Then cover the seeds with soil from above. Sprinkle water on paperless for a few days. After a few days, you will see sprouts coming up.
When the length of the seedling is about one inch, then cut the paper cup and plant the plant in the pot.
Plant only one plant in a pot. If there is more than one plant in the pot, tomato production will be reduced.
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In order to maintain the plants, it is very important that their roots do not get opened. The soil should be slightly moist, but not too wet.
When the plants start growing, give them the support of the wood, otherwise, they will bow down with the burden of fruits.
Before planting the plants, make arrangements to support the plants by planting wood in the pot, later this task is not as easy. Rooting of the wood in the pot may damage the roots.
Water the plant daily. In the summer, when the mercury gets high enough, water will need to be given twice.
Giving water once in the cold season will do the job. It is also very important to keep the plant in shape.
The withering branches were intermittently harvested. Break the dry leaves and branches and put them back in the pot. This increases soil nutrient. Your plant will give more tomatoes.
Watch Out for These All 15 Tomato Plant Diseases in Your Garden This Summer
- Septoria Leaf Spot.
- Fusarium and Verticillium Wilt.
- Early Blight (Alternaria)
- Late Blight.
- Mosaic Virus.
- Blossom Drop.
- Blossom-End Rot.
Tomato Plant Diseases